Bird Kills at Towers and Other Human-Made Structures:

An Annotated and Partial Bibliography (1960-1998)
By: John L. Trapp
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Office of Migratory Bird Management
Arlington, Virginia 22203
(907) 358-1821

Last Revised: 10 June 1998


The purpose of this document is to increase public awareness of the potential impacts of towers and other human-made structures by highlighting some of the pertinent literature on the subject. The bibliography focuses primarily on collisions with communication towers, lighted buildings, and (to a lesser degree) windows. No effort has been made to cover collisions with power lines or wind turbines, topics that have been addressed by Bevanger (1994) and Hebert et al. (1995).

Previous bibliographies on the subject of bird collisions with human-made objects have been prepared by Weir (1976), Avery et al. (1978), Avery et al. (1980), Hebert et al. (1995), and the National Wind Technology Center (n.d.). This document is intended to supplement, not duplicate, these earlier publications. Of the 125 citations listed below, 83 were published subsequent to Avery et al. (1980) and 102 were not included in Hebert et al. (1995); 24 of the citations are to Internet sites.

If you are aware of other references published since 1979 that you think should be added to this bibliography, please send that information to <http//>.

View the list here.

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